Guide

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  1. Infomation technology
  2. For electroplating of metals, especially precious metals, water based solutions (electrolytes) are used which contain the metals to be deposited as ions (i.e. dissolved metal salts). An electric field between the anode and the work pieces as the cathode forces the positively charged metal ions to move to the cathode where they give up their charge and deposit themselves as metal on the surface of the work piece. Depending on the application, for electric and electronic or decorative end use, different electrolytic bath solutions (electrolytes) are used. The electroplating equipment used for precious metal plating and its complexity varies widely depending on the process technologies employed. Electroplating processes are encompassing besides the pure metal deposition also preparative and post treatments of the goods to be coated. An important parameter for creating strongly adhering deposits is the surface of the goods to be metallic clean without oily or oxide film residues. This is achieved through various pre-treatment processes specifically developed for the types of material and surface conditions of the goods to be plated. In the following segments electrolytes – both precious and non-precious – as well as the most widely used electroplating processes are described. more
    The term PVD (physical vapor deposition) defines processes of metal, metal alloys, and chemical compounds deposition in a vacuum by adding thermal and kinetic energy through particle bombardment. The main processes are the following four coating variations:
    • Vapor deposition
    • Sputtering (Cathode atomization)
    • Arc vaporizing
    • Ion implantation

    In all four processes the coating material is transported in its atomic form to the substrate and deposited on it as a thin layer (a few nm to approx. 10 μm) more


  3. Energy technology (typically < 12V <500mA)
  4.   Switching current in A
    Applications 1 10 100 1000 10.000
    Automotive relays and switches
    DC-switches and contactors
    DC- Heavy-duty switchgear (industrial)
      Switching current in A
    Applications 1 10 100 1000 10.000
    Appliance switches
    Light switches

    Main switches

    Power relays
    Circuit breakers

    (domestic MCCBs)

    Disconnect, power and motor switches (control relays and contactors)
    Heavy-duty switchgear (industrial)
    Automotive relays and switches